Types of Private Supplies

Springs, Boreholes and Wells

Springs, boreholes and deep wells that draw water from deep underground sources are less likely to be contaminated than supplies from other sources but water may become contaminated where:
• the spring emerges; or
• the water collects in the borehole or well.
In farmland, underground water can pick up nitrates (from fertilisers) or pesticides which may be harmful to health. Water from shallow wells, and springs which draw water from close to the surface of the ground, is usually less wholesome and more likely to be contaminated.

Streams, Rivers and Lakes

The quality of water from streams, rivers and lakes will generally not be as good as that from springs, boreholes and deep wells. The quality of this water will also vary depending on the weather conditions. It is highly likely to be contaminated,
particularly with bacteria, at times of:
• high rainfall; or
• warm weather.
Water that runs across land into streams, rivers and lakes picks up contamination from various sources, for example, the soil and the droppings from farm animals, wild animals and birds. Some of this contamination may be dangerous to health. Also contamination from pollution events puts these sources at high risk.

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